Material Growth
III-V lab has developed epitaxial growth processes by Metal Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and Halide Vapour Phase Epitaxy (HVPE), on various substrates such as GaAs, InP and GaSb for both optoelectronic and microelectronic devices, as well as on SiC and Si for GaN microwave devices.

An experienced team is available to provide device designers with the properly engineered arsenide, phosphide and antimonide heterostructures, mixing various types of abrupt or graded heterojunctions, incorporating quantum wells or quantum dots, or strained material layers.

Besides in situ monitoring of grown layers, a full set of in house characterization tools are available including high precision X-ray double diffraction, room and low temperature photoluminescence, dopant and mobility profiling. More advanced characterization is subcontracted to local partners.

Cleanroom equipment    
Wafer processing
Complete processing lines are available for the production of III-V based optoelectronic and microelectronic devices and circuits, located in the 800 m² and 400 m² of processing clean rooms (class 10000 or better) in Marcoussis and Palaiseau respectively. Processing building blocks have been developed, qualified and tuned to cover the many requirements of the variety of devices and III-V material systems :
Optical and electron beam lithography
Wet and high resolution dry-etching (IBE, RIE, ICP …)
Dielectric and metal deposition and annealing, Zn diffusion on 3” wafers
Anti-reflection coating with in situ ellipsometry
Wafer thinning and dicing
Measurement equipments    
In order to assess device and circuit performances and to provide application teams with functional devices, packaging is a key technology for the III-V Lab.
Packages are first designed taking into account the specific thermal and electromagnetic requirements of the application.

Many test set-ups have been developed at III-V Lab for the characterization of the different types of devices and circuits such as:

near-field or far-field and chirp monitoring of optical laser sources and modulators,
responsivity and noise of single or arrayed photodetectors,
microwave S parameters and large signal non linear measurements of electronic devices.
Design room    
Multi-Physics modelling
While thermal and electronic modeling, device and circuit designs mostly rely on commercially available softwares, sometimes complemented by specific internal codes, a number of in-house softwares have been developed for guided-wave optoelectronic devices, anticipating the capabilities of commercial ones.

III-V Lab offers all steps of services for devices manufacturing, from device design to fully processed wafers (2” to 4”), based on GaAs and InP substrates and addressing small/medium volume.

MOVPE epitaxy
Metalorganic vapour-phase epitaxy consists on a chemical vapour deposition. A gas mixture is sent to a substrate at high temperature under low pressure. This mixture contains organometallic molecules and hydrides that decompose on the substrate surface. 
MBE epitaxy
Molecular Beam Epitaxy consists on evaporating at very low pressure in a vacuum chamber III atoms and V atoms onto a substrate at high temperature 
Small and medium-sized series
III-V Lab manufactures small and medium-sized series:
particularly suited to meet the needs of strategic sectors with high added value.
adapted to respond to the rapidly changing market
offering its customers quick access to component technologies for their system developments and early deployments.

PHOTONIC DEVICES (amplifiers, lasers, detectors, modulators) & CIRCUITS
0,8 µm
1,55 µm : DFB, EML, SOA, MLL
Photodiodes InGaAs : PIN, APD
InP HBT ('1,5µm ' & '0,5 µm' technologies)
GaN Devices for Microwaves

Multi Format High Speed linear Preamplified Receiver Operating at 100 Gbit/s NRZ-OOK
REFERENCE: Christophe. Caillaud, Robert Borkowski, Fabrice Blache, Filipe Jorge, Michel Goix, Bernadette Duval, Rene Bonk, Franck Mallecot
ECOC - 6-10 December 2020

High baud rate and multi-level capability of preamplified receiver
106-GHz bandwidth InP DHBT linear driver with a 3-Vppdiff swing at 80 GBd in PAM-4
New differential linear drivers with 0.7-mm emitter width are designed, fabricated and characterized at the III-V Lab based upon indium phosphide (InP) double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) technology. Large-signal electrical characterisation shows 80- GBd symbol-rate four-level pulse amplitude (PAM-4) modulation conjugated with a driver output swing of 3-Vppdiff and a 0.74-W power consumption. Thus resulting in a 1.22-GBd driving efficiency, the highest in over 70-GBd drivers’ state-of-the-art to date. Accordingly, S-parameter measurements of the standalone linear driver exhibit the highest gain-bandwidth product of 556 GHz.

REFERENCE: R. Hersent, F. Jorge, B. Duval, J.-Y. Dupuy, A. Konczykowska, M. Riet, V. Nodjiadjim, C. Mismer, F. Blache, A.-E. Kasbari and A. Ouslimani
“106-GHz bandwidth InP DHBT linear driver with a 3-Vppdiff swing at 80 GBd in PAM-4”,
Electronics Letters, pp. 1-2, April 2020. doi: 10.1049/el.2020.0654

InP DHBT linear driver 80-GBd PAM-4 output eye diagram with a 3-Vppdiff swing    

Measured and simulated S-parameter of InP DHBT linear driver
Comparison of AlGaInAs-Based Laser Behavior Grown on Hybrid InP-SiO2/Si and InP Substrates
This study aims at qualifying a very thick vertical p-i-n diode (3 μm) regrown onto an InP-SiO2/Si (InPoSi) substrate together with the one obtained as a reference, in the same growth run, on an InP substrate. This design intends to suppress potential internal losses induced by the p++-doped contact layer on top of the structure by adding a 2 μm-thick InP:p cladding layer above the active region.

REFERENCE:C. Besancon et al.
“Comparison of AlGaInAs-Based Laser Behavior Grown on Hybrid InP-SiO₂/Si and InP Substrates,”
IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett., vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 469–472, Apr. 2020

Vertical current collection scheme structure grown on InPoSi: (a) Schematic of the structure; (b) Atomic Force Microscope image; (c) Cross-sectional Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy image.    
Photoluminescence signal measured at RT on the structure grown on an InP substrate (red) and on InPoSi (blue).

J-L characteristics in pulse regime at 20_C: laser on InPoSi (solid line) and the laser on InP (dash line).
III-V on Silicon photonic platform
REFERENCE:Joan Manel Ramirez , Hajar Elfaiki, Théo Verolet, Claire Besancon, Antonin Gallet , Delphine Néel, Karim Hassan , Ségolène Olivier, Christophe Jany, Stéphane Malhouitre, Kamil Gradkowski , Padraic E. Morrissey, Peter O’Brien, Christophe Caillaud, Nicolas Vaissière, Jean Decobert , Shenghui Lei, Ryan Enright, Alexandre Shen, and Mohand Achouche
"III-V-on-Silicon Integration: From Hybrid Devices to Heterogeneous Photonic Integrated Circuits"
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 1-13, March-April 2020, Art no. 6100213, doi: 10.1109/JSTQE.2019.2939503.

a)Optical mode transition between III-V and Silicon waveguides
b)III-V on Silicon waveguide cross section    
Wavelength tunability of a heterointegrated laser
We have demonstrated DFB Ridge laser diodes emitting at 852nm and 894nm, at room temperature, and their packaging in hermetic TO-3 can, addressing the pumping of Cs. These lasers respond to all specifications required for the realization of very stable optically pumped compact industrial Cesium beam atomic clocks. Indeed, they show a low threshold current, a high external differential efficiency, with emission in a single spatial mode and in a single frequency, with a very high side mode suppression ratio and a linewidth less than 1MHz.

REFERENCE: M. Garcia, C. Theveneau, P.A. Roxo, A. Larrue, P. Resneau, Y. Robert, E. Vinet, J.P. Legoec, O.Parillaud, B. Gérard, M. Krakowski
OPTRO2020 paper 45

Schematic view of the ridge DFB laser with Aluminium free active region (Quantum Well: GaInAsP, Optical Confinement: GaInP) grown by two steps Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE)

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) picture of the Bragg grating realized by e beam lithography    
Light- current and efficiency-current characteristics showing low threshold current and high efficiency of the DFB laser emitting at 852nm

Optical spectrum at 22°C and 75mA showing an emission at 852.12nm (Cs D2 line) with a very high rejection of the side modes
Record Pulse Energy (201pJ) Passively Mode-Locked Monolithic Tapered Laser
We demonstrate a very-long (13.5 mm) monolithic multi-section tapered laser reaching 201pJ mode-locked (ML) pulses at low repetition frequency of 2.89 GHz with a pulse width of 11ps (compressed to 2.4ps). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a fundamental frequency ML at such low PRF in a centimeter-long monolithic semiconductor laser. This is also a demonstration of a record high pulse energy from the electrically pumped laser diode without any additional amplification stage.

REFERENCE: Michel Krakowski , Patrick Resneau, Michel Garcia, Eric Vinet, Yannick Robert, Olivier Parillaud, Bruno Gérard, Stefan Kundermann, Nicolas Torcheboeuf , and Dmitri L. Boiko
"Stabilized High Pulse Energy Passively Mode-Locked Monolithic and External Cavity Tapered Lasers for Space Applications"

Schematic diagram of the very long (13.5mm) monolithic multi-sections tapered laser    
RF spectrum of the monolithic multi-section tapered laser. Pulse Repetition Frequency is 2.886GHz thanks to the very long laser cavity.
Demonstration of a 10W GaN integrated amplifier for 5G millimeter wave band based on InAlGaN/GaN HEMT Technology
Gallium Nitride (GaN) High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) are now widely used inside RF systems, thanks to their high power handling capabilities and efficiency. However, today, most of the power amplifiers (PA) designed on GaN HEMTs technology are based on AlGaN/GaN/SiC heterostructure. III-V Lab develops an alternative HEMT structures based on the quaternary barrier layer InAlGaN on SiC substrate which may lead to enhanced electrical performances with reduced epitaxial strain the structure. Our technology shows less dispersive effects partially due to an innovative AlGaN Back-Barrier in the buffer layer, optimized for power application, which suggests a particular interest for high frequency power amplification.

REFERENCE: C. Potier, S. Piotrowicz, C. Chang, O. Patard, L. Trinh-Xuan, J. Gruenenpuett, P. Gamarra1, P. Altuntas, E. Chartier, D. Lancereau, C. Lacam, N. Michel, S.L. Delage
"10W Ka Band MMIC Power Amplifiers based on InAlGaN/GaN HEMT Technology "
Proceedings of the 49th European Microwave Conference, 1– 3 Oct 2019, Paris, France, Publisher IEEE

InAlGaN/HEMT structure used for millimetre waves applications

10W GaN integrated amplifier for 5G millimeter wave band based on InAlGaN/GaN HEMT Technology    
On-wafer pulsed small-signal measurements of 40 amplifiers (red) and test jig conditions (blue) in CW mode at VDSq =15V and IDSq =150mA/mm.
0.7-μm InP DHBT Technology With 400-GHz fT and fMAX and 4.5-V BVCE0 for High Speed and High Frequency Integrated Circuits
We demonstrated the performance of a 0.7-μm InP/GaInAs DHBT developed in III-V Lab demonstrating both fT and fMAX of 400 GHz as well as a high fabrication yield and homogeneity on a 3-inch wafer. This technology is used for the fabrication of a very high speed 2:1 multiplexing selector operating up to 212-Gb/s, establishing a speed record. A 5.4-Vpp 100-Gb/s distributed differential selector-driver, as well as a 4.3-Vpp 64-GBd 8-pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM) (192 Gb/s) high-speed power digital-to-analog converter (DAC) were also realized in this technology.

REFERENCE: V. Nodjiadjim, M. Riet, C. Mismer, R. Hersent, F. Jorge, A. Konczykowska, J.-Y. Dupuy,
" 0.7-μm InP DHBT technology with 400-GHz fT and fMAX and 4.5-V BVCE0 for high speed and high frequency integrated circuits,"
in IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society, vol. 7, pp. 748-752, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/JEDS.2019.2928271

SEM photograph of a 0.7x5-µm² InP DHBT before interconnection level

Frequency performance variation of 0.7x5-µm² DHBTs across a 3-inch wafer    

2:1-Selector circuit microphotograph and measured 212-Gb/s output signal
Ultrafast Tunable laser
REFERENCE: T. Verolet et al.,
"Hybrid III-V on Silicon Fast and Widely Tunable Laser Based on Rings Resonators with PIN Junctions,"
2018 Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (ACP), Hangzhou, 2018, pp. 1-3, doi: 10.1109/ACP.2018.8596161.

PIN junction-based tunable laser